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penury \PEN-yuh-ree\, noun:

It means:

1. Extreme poverty; destitution.
2. Absence of resources; insufficiency.

He was a cooper by trade, a native of Rio de Janeiro, where he  would have died in penury and obscurity had he limited himself to the work of barrel-making.
--Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, [2]The Posthumous Memoirs of Brás Cubas (translated by Gregory Rabassa)

arcane \ar-KAYN\, adjective:

It means:

Understood or known by only a few.

Under  Indonesia's  arcane  system of land tenure, disputes between local residents, and between locals and developers, are commonplace.
--"Not Fair." [1]The Economist, July 26, 1997

limpid \LIM-pid\, adjective:

It means:

1. Characterized by clearness or transparency; clear; as, "a limpid stream."
2. Calm; untroubled; serene.
3. Clear in style; easily understandable.

Claire's large eyes are a limpid, liquid blue that reflect the ambient world.
--Margaret A. Salinger, Dream Catcher

portent \POR-tent\, noun:

1. A sign of a coming event or calamity; an omen.
2. Prophetic or menacing significance.
3. Something amazing; a marvel.

A comet that year was taken as a portent of some imminent but incalculable change.
--Patrick Smith, Japan: A Reinterpretation

felicitous \fuh-LIS-uh-tuhs\, adjective:

1. Suitably applied or expressed; appropriate; apt.
2. Happy; delightful; marked by good fortune.

"We do this sort of thing most weekends anyway," said a lean rebel with gunpowder smudges on his face and the felicitous name of Troy Cool.  --Tony Horwitz, Confederates in the Attic

crux \KRUHKS\, noun
plural cruxes, also cruces \KROO-seez\:

It means:

1. The basic, central, or critical point or feature.
2. Anything that is very puzzling or difficult to explain or solve.

recidivism \rih-SID-uh-viz-uhm\, noun:

It means:

1) A tendency to lapse into a previous condition or pattern of behavior.

filial \FIL-ee-uhl; FIL-yuhl\, adjective:

It means:

Having or assuming the relation of a child or offspring.

cerebration \ser-uh-BRAY-shuhn\, noun:

It means:

1) The  act  or  product  of  thinking
2) The  use of the power of reason; mental activity; thought

denizen \DEN-uh-zuhn\, noun:

It means:

1) A dweller; an inhabitant.
2) One that frequents a particular place.
3) [Chiefly British] An alien granted certain rights of citizenship.
4) An animal, plant, etc. that has become naturalized.

gesticulate \juh-STIK-yuh-layt\, intransitive verb:

It means:

1) To make  gestures  or  motions,  especially while speaking or instead of   

dotage \DOH-tij\, noun:

It means:

1) Feebleness of mind due to old age; senility.

caserne (ka-zûrn) n.

It means:

1) A military barracks or garrison.

vehement \VEE-uh-muhnt\, adjective:

It means:

1.  Characterized  by intensity of emotions or convictions, or
   forcefulness of expression.
2.  Characterized  by  or  acting  with great force or energy;

excoriate \ek-SKOR-ee-ayt\, transitive verb:

It means:

  1. To express strong disapproval of; to denounce.
  2. To tear or wear off the skin of.

physiognomy \fiz-ee-OG-nuh-mee; -ON-uh-mee\, noun:

It means:

1. The art of discovering temperament and other characteristic  
   qualities of the mind from the outward appearance, especially
   by the features of the face.

proselytize \PROS-uh-luh-tyz\, intransitive verb:

It means:

1. To induce someone to convert to one's religious faith
  or political view point.

aggrandize \uh-GRAN-dyz; AG-ruhn-dyz\, transitive verb:

It means:

1. To make great or greater; to enlarge; to increase.

wheedle \HWEE-d'l; WEE-d'l\, transitive verb:

It means:

1.  To entice by soft words or flattery; to coax.